It is the general term describing the action of transmitting data from one point to another. Often shortened to 'telecoms'.
Telecommunications can be carried out with physical media such as copper wire and fibre-optic cable. The cables can be fairly short to form local area networks or extremely long such as the undersea telecom cables between continents.
Long distance telecoms can also be carried out with radio technology such as satellite and microwave links and locally with Wi-Fi technology.
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