This literally means "At the same time".
In computer networks, Synchronous data transfer between two computers means they share a common clock, so the data rate is exactly the same on each computer.
The useful thing about synchronous data is that it does not require complicated protocols to keep everything in-step. The disadvantage is that a common clock signal has to be shared between machines.
See also 'asynchronous data' in the glossary.
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Click on this link: Synchronous