Parallel processing means an overall task is split into a group of sub-tasks. Each sub-task is then allocated its own processing core or CPU and they all run simulatenously in parallel.
Parallel processing is possible on a single modern CPU chip as it usually has 2 cores or more available. The next level up is to have multiple computers work in parallel.
This offers a great improvement in the time is takes to complete the overall task.
For example a render farm has hundreds or thousands of CPUs available and these are used to process animated or cgi-heavy films where different sections of the film can be handled in parallel.
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