The full name for this is "data logging".
It means to capture some physical measurements into a data file. This data file can then be handled by a computer for analysis and presentation.
A machine dedicated to capturing data is called a 'data-logger'. A data-logger has one or more input sensors to take measurements.
How often the data-logger takes a measurement is called the 'sample rate'. Sample rates can be any suitable interval. For example a car engine data-logger will take measurements thousands of times a second, but a data-logger taking measurements of a rising volcano might be every few hours or days.
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Click on this link: Logging