This is the acronym for Graphical Processing Unit
The GPU was originally developed to assist the CPU with processing tasks that could easily be handled in parallel such as doing the maths for computer graphics rendering, shading and lighting.
GPUs are the core technology of computer game consoles.
Whilst a CPU may have a few processing cores, the GPU has hundreds of processing cores. A complex task such as rendering an image is broken down into hundreds of smaller tasks which are then allocated a core to run on.
GPUs are now used in a whole host of fields - Computer gaming, Artificial Intelligence, cryptography, supercomputing.
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Click on this link: What is a GPU