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OCR 9-1 (J277) GCSE Computer Science

First teaching 2020, first examination 2022

1.1.1 Architecture of the CPU

  • Computer system
  • Input, process, output, storage
  • Data bus
  • Control unit
  • ALU
  • Registers
  • Cache
  • Von Neumann architecture
  • MAR & MDR
  • Program Counter
  • Accumulator
  • Registers involved
  • Fetch, decode, execute cycle

1.1.2 CPU performance

CPU common characteristics

  • Clock speed
  • Multi-core processors
  • Cache size

1.1.3 Embedded systems

Purpose, characteristics of embedded systems

  • Introduction
  • Features
  • Microcontroller

1.2.1 Primary storage

Primary storage features

  • Features
  • RAM ROM Cache

1.2.2 Secondary storage

Secondary storage features

  • Common types of storage
  • Suitable devices
  • How to choose

1.2.3 Units

Units of data storage

  • Bit, nibble, byte
  • Kilobyte, megabyte
  • Terabyte, petabyte

1.2.4 Data storage

Binary numbers

  • Number systems
  • Digit position
  • Converting between binary/denary
  • Adding binary
  • Binary shift
  • Binary overflow

Hexadecimal numbers

  • Hex symbols
  • Converting between binary/hexadecimal
  • Converting between denary / hexadecimal

Characters

  • ASCII
  • Character sets
  • Unicode

Images

  • Storing pixels
  • Meta data
  • Quality of image
  • Size of image file

Sound

  • What is sound
  • Sample rate
  • Bit depth
  • Size of sound file

Compression

  • Lossy compression
  • Lossless compression

1.3.1 Networks and topologies

Types of network

  • What is a network
  • Home network
  • Business network/denary
  • LAN
  • WAN

Performance factors

  • Bandwidth
  • Number of users
  • Latency
  • Error rate
  • Wi-Fi performance

Roles of computers

  • Client - Server
  • Peer-to-peer

Hardware needed

  • NIC
  • Hub
  • Switch
  • Router
  • Transmission media
  • WAP and Wi-Fi

Internet technology

  • DNS
  • Hosting
  • Cloud
  • Web servers and clients

Network topology

  • Star topology
  • Mesh topology

1.3.2 Networks, protocols and layers

Modes of connection

  • Wired - Ethernet
  • Wireless - Wi-Fi
  • Wireless - Bluetooth

Encryption

  • Encryption methods
  • Symmetric
  • Public - Private key

IP and MAC addressing

  • IP addressing
  • MAC addressing

Common Protocols

  • TCP/IP
  • HTTP
  • HTTPS
  • FTP
  • POP
  • IMAP
  • SMTP
  • Layer concept

1.4.1 Network threats

Types of threats

  • Malware
  • Social engineering,phishing
  • Brute force attack
  • Denial of Service
  • Data interception
  • SQL injection

1.4.2 Prevention methods

Threat prevention methods

  • Penetration testing
  • Anti-malware software
  • Firewalls
  • User-access rights
  • Passwords
  • Encryption
  • Physical security

1.5.1 Operating systems

Purpose and use of operating systems

  • User interface
  • Memory management, multitasking
  • Peripheral management and drivers
  • User management
  • File management

1.5.2 Utility software

Purpose and use of utility software

  • Encryption software
  • Defragmentation
  • Data compression

1.6.1 Ethical Legal

Ethical issues

  • Digital divide
  • Genetic screening
  • Whistleblowers
  • Drones
  • Self-driving cars

Environment

  • E-waste
  • Sustainability
  • Recycling
  • Energy
  • Earth monitoring
  • The stakeholders

Privacy issues

  • DNA profiling
  • National ID cards
  • CCTV
  • Electronic tracking
  • Earth monitoring
  • Personal data
  • Stakholder perspective

Cultural issues

  • Anonimity issues
  • Use of social media
  • Health issues arising
  • Citizen journalism
  • Making popular videos

Legislation

  • The Data Protection Act 2018
  • Computer Misuse Act 1990
  • Copyright Designs & Patents Act 1988
  • Software licences - open, proprietary

2.1.2 Computational thinking

Principles of computational thinking

  • Abstraction
  • Decomposition
  • Algorithmic thinking
  • Structure diagrams
  • Abstraction practice
  • Input-process-output practice
  • Decomposition practice
  • Algorithm practice
  • Pattern recognition practice

Writing pseudocode

  • Pseudocode
  • Practice activities
  • Exam Reference language

Using flowcharts

  • Flowcharts
  • Practice activities

2.1.3 Searching and sorting algorithms

Search algorithms

  • Binary search
  • Linear search

Sort algorithms

  • Bubble sort
  • Merge sort
  • Insertion sort
  • Practice questions

2.2.1 Programming Fundamentals

Variables and others

  • Variables
  • Constants
  • Operators
  • Assignments
  • Input Output

Arrays

  • One dimenstion
  • Two dimension
  • Static
  • Dynamic
  • Array functions

Sequence Selection Iteration

  • Sequence
  • Selection
  • Iteration
  • Conditionals - IF
  • Conditionals - CASE
  • WHILE iteration
  • DO iteration
  • FOR iteration

2.2.2 Data types

Use of data types

  • Integer
  • Real
  • Boolean
  • Character
  • String
  • Casting

2.2.3 Additonal programming

String manipulation and handling

  • Assignment
  • Concatenate
  • Traversal
  • Search
  • Copy

File manipulation and handling

  • Open
  • Read
  • Write
  • Close

SQL and databases

  • Records
  • SQL
  • SELECT
  • WHERE
  • FROM

Functions and subprocedures

  • Repeating code
  • Subprocedures
  • Functions
  • Code library

Random numbers

  • Use of random numbers
  • Python worked example
  • Python files in zip

2.3.1 Defensive design methods

Defensive design

  • User interface choice
  • Screen widgets
  • Repeat data entry
  • Input boxes
  • Validation
  • Authentication

Maintainable code

  • Comments
  • Headers
  • Whitespace
  • Indentation
  • Naming

2.3.2 Identify syntax and logic errors

Spotting errors

  • Logic errors
  • Syntax errors
  • Arithmetic order
  • Debugging tools
  • Runtime errors
  • Authentication

Types of testing

  • Test plan
  • Test data
  • Black box strategy
  • White box strategy
  • Iterative testing
  • Final testing

2.4.1 Boolean logic

Logic

  • What is logic
  • Binary logic
  • Logic gates
  • Truth tables
  • Standard symbols

2.5.1 & 2.5.2 Languages & IDE

Languages

  • Machine code
  • Assembly language
  • High level language
  • Translator
  • Compilers
  • IDE features